Grade Five Art Skills
- Control of the inks and the method of taking a print are important but shouldn’t overwhelm the printing process to the exclusion of all else. Creating a successful print at this age can be difficult and frustrating and too much emphasis on keeping a clean print and clean hands etc can detract from the overall process.
- At this early stage the students can be introduced to the idea of what is a print. A print is made by pressing one surface against another, something as simple as a hand pressed into sand, tire tracks on a dirt road.
- They can also be introduced to the idea of limited edition prints, artist’s proofs, commercial printing and the way a limited edition print is numbered, named, signed and dated. They enjoy doing this on their own work.
- At grade 5 level the students can be introduced to foam printing and from this they can take their first limited edition prints. Foam printing is a good precursor to linoleum cutting in grade 6 and introduces the idea of relief printing.
- Foam printing is a good follow on from any work you might be doing on drawing and line work. The most successful prints are those which have vast amounts of detail on them so students should be encouraged to create quite complex line drawings to transfer on to foam. A piece of foam about 15cm square is a good size.
- Students can successfully produce an edition of 3 prints and an artist’s proof. For students who finish early they can be encouraged to experiment with printing on different types of paper (newspaper, pages from magazines, tissue paper, combinations of these). They get particularly good results printing over colored images. They can also experiment with coloring the images by hand,(GOOD FOR ALL THOSE UNSUCCESSFUL PRINTS) with anything they may choose or coloring the image and developing the design beyond the limitations of the print.
- To print foam I find the most successful method is to ink up the foam then place a piece of paper on top. Use the ball of the hand to then rub over the surface. Make sure they don’t use the tips of their fingers or lots of little indentations will appear on the foam which will not print.
Introduction of elements: Line and tone – experimental use of line – different pencils + marks + media (Soft and Hard Pencils vs. Charcoal)
Introduction of Principles: Drawing in the negative – using eraser end using extreme tones (Contrast)
INTRODUCTION OF PAINTING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
- Introduction to paint brushes, make sure they are aware of the brush size numbers, differences between flat and round, and soft and stiff bristle brushes.
- Dry Brush Method- As the name implies, you use a fairly dry brush with pigment to create detail and texture as the student pulls it across the paper surface.
- Stippling- dots of different colors lay side by side using the tip of a brush.
- Alternative tools such as drinking straws that can blow blobs of paint in various directions and string soaked in paint and then dragged across the paper.
- Dry Surface Wash- This is simply color applied to dry paper. It is advisable to have the students mix up enough of the color to cover the surface, load the brush and draw it across the top of the dry paper. Continue down the paper working from side to side.
INTRODUCTION TO TEXTILES AND CREATIVE EMBROIDERY
- At this stage short cuts should be taken if necessary. Working with thread and fabric should not be viewed as tedious and time-consuming. The differing abilities of the students should be recognized and taken into account.
- Fabrics and their different qualities. Explanation of WARP and WEFT
- Use only large-eyed canvas needles. How to thread. Correct length of yarn; How to start off. Sewing off at the back.
- Basic stitching. Demonstrate versatility of COUCHING method. Running stitch. Back stitch, French knots, Seeding
- Appliqué. Use of scissors. Methods of application; sticking, overstitch, slipstitch.
- The use of ‘unorthodox’ materials such as broken pieces of bark, palm fronds, dried leaves, wine corks, pipe-cleaners, drinking straws.
- Beads, sequins.
- Simple rag weaving on card looms.
- Simple printing on cotton material. Stencil and vegetable cuts.
- The correct return of materials such as needles and scissors.
INTRODUCTION OF CLAY METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
- Introduction to clay procedures, make sure they understand the process of firing, what the clay is like when it comes out of the kiln and the uses of a glaze to protect and to beautify the surface. Show them what the glazes look like before they go into the kiln and explain what happens in the kiln.
- Simple rolling out of clay using rolling pins and rolling guides, introduce idea of using a paper template in order to cut out a shape correctly. A theme could be used for the shapes, animals, houses etc, Decoration of the surface using incised lines and adding on small details. Talk about crosshatching the surface to apply extra clay. Rather than just tiles they can make different shaped frames, when completed mirrors can be applied to the back. Onto this surface they can add decoration and/or impress objects.
- Larger slabs can be folded around to make a small round/oval container. If these slabs are only about 8 cm high they are manageable. They can roll the clay over pieces of string, leaves, scrunched up paper etc. A base can be added on the next week when the “pot” has hardened slightly.
- The flat shapes that have been cut out can be laid over a curved form such as a half pipe, to create shapes similar to roof tiles. Be careful that the clay is not too dry when they bend it, otherwise the clay will crack.
- Experiment with rolling coils. Simple trivets can be made by overlapping the coils and threading them (leaving gaps between them) patterns can be impressed into the clay. These can be fragile so you would need to see if the class is confident enough, otherwise wait until next year. This is a good introductory activity for the coiling method; they can practice and produce something that can be finished in one lesson and be fired.
- As above but rather than coils thin strips can be cut from rolled out slabs of clay. The rolled out slabs would need to be relatively thin.
- Make a simple stamp out of clay. The clay should be relatively hard so as to hold its shape. These stamps can then be used straight away to print onto a sheet of paper. Apply a thin layer of paint using a brush and stamp very carefully.
- Alternatively the stamps can be fired and then used at a later date to impress into the clay. Idea of repetition can be introduced. The stamp idea can be used in other grades as another means to produce surface decoration.
- An introduction to color mixing, various brush types and sizes, and cleaning techniques will be covered.
- Vocabulary of Color- The color wheel will be discussed with an emphasis on primary and secondary color scheme relationships.
- At this age students will consolidate what they may have learned in primary grades
- Emphasis will be on hearing about Artists and themes (using visuals) and then orally answering teacher generated questions.
- Students are encouraged to use a wide, rich vocabulary.
Grade Six Art Skills
- Drawing in the negative – Making and using extreme tones (Chalks/Pastels)
- Making and using pattern
- Line quality in relation to media
- Recording from direct observation natural/ constructed (man-made) forms – Art Nouveau
Painting methods and techniques:
An introduction to the application and progression of the paint through the use of various techniques and materials will be covered.
Vocabulary of Color- A continuation to previous knowledge learnt with an emphasis to analogous and complementary color scheme relationships.
- Scrumbling– This method can easily be called scrubbing, take a loaded brush with color and flatten it while rotating it in a circular motion as you apply the paint. The texture of the paper will show through the paint.
- Splattering– Coat the top of a tooth brush or flat brush with pigment, hold over selected area and run finger over the bristles. Surround areas that do not want this technique with paper.
- Starbursts– Lay a wash of color and while the paint is still wet, drop in blobs of a second color. The resulting mixture will create soft starburst effects.
- Cotton Buds or Rounded Brush– dipped into clean water and rubbed on moist paint or dry water color paint to lift it. This is useful to reveal white paper from a painted surface.
- Laying a broken color– Load a brush with undiluted paint and draw the brush lightly across the surface of the canvas.
- Flat wash– First dampen the paper (for watercolor painting) and then have students mix plenty of your chosen color. Load a large flat brush with paint and take it across the paper in one stroke. Load the brush again and work back in the opposite direction, picking up the excess water from the previous line. Continue until the whole area is covered.
Textiles and creative embroidery:
The emphasis should be on exploration and discovery. The effect and impact of
color relationships, limited color schemes. Repetition, composition.
- Properties of fabrics. Hessian, denim, calico, canvas, cotton sheeting.
- How to stretch fabric onto a wooden frame.
- Gluing methods.
- Introduction to Resist methods: tie and dye. One color.
- More advanced stitches, couching and appliqué methods. Working stitches into layers. How to make multi-colored cords.
- Combination of fabric paint, dye and yarn on fabric.
- Introduction to fabric manipulation.
- Rag weaving, with the inclusion of shells, card shapes, tree bark etc.
- Reinforcement of fabrics and their different qualities
- Method of stretching fabric onto a frame or table
- More stitches
- Introduction to resist methods: tie and dye
- Introduction to Fabric Manipulation
- More advanced rag weaving
- More advanced printing
Introduction to clay methods and techniques:
- Reinforcement of previous knowledge.
- Making and joining of two or more thumb pots.
- Use of slip to decorate a surface, scgraffito.
- Using coils to make a coil pot, introduce burnishing.
- Glazing of a large area using pouring technique.
- Thumb pots on own and joined together with air in the middle. This shape can then successfully be manipulated without imploding. Pieces of clay can be added on to make characters, human or animal. Reinforce idea of using cross-hatching to attach clay to surface.
- Six thumb pots can be made and joined together to make 3 pebble pots (two pots joined together as above) Whilst still malleable enough to manipulate without breaking “squash” them into each other to make an interesting sculpture but still keeping the pots as separate entities. Each surface can be decorated differently. One may have a scratched design, another with slip trailing etc.
- Use one thumb pot as a starting point and then add on coils to create small containers; again these can be decorated using a variety of different techniques.
- Design and make a coil pot. Research into Ancient Greek pots to help them produce an interesting design. These can be made large and then surface can be burnished to show off the shape. Patterns can then be scratched into the surface.
- A variety of beads and clay disks can be made; decoration can be impressed onto flat disks onto both sides. Beads can be rolled into textured surfaces, sand etc. Make two holes into the disks, one at the top and one at the bottom. Glazing can be difficult with such shapes so they can be left and simply fired to a higher temperature with no glaze addition, although some oxides could be used. Each child would need to make about 20 different sizes and types so that when completed they could make a group hanging, or several in smaller groups. Themes could be used to make shapes more interesting or topical.
- Consider similar idea to above but aim to thread them onto upright metal poles. The shapes could be bigger and holes can go upright through them.
- Introduction to lino printing, one color.
- Looking at line, shape, positive/negative space.
- Looking at safety with lino tools, reversed nature of this type of printing, how to transfer to lino
- Introduction to color blending of inks, different printing surfaces
- Having learned about Artists and their contexts during 5th grade, students are ready to bring this into writing.
- Classroom discussions about Artists and themes/movements continue, and then move to writing using the three parts listed above.
- A half page will be the norm. Two images, related to the writing, will be on the page.
- Particular attention is paid to research methods that do not include plagiarism.